Guidance is provided below for the use of shoreline cleanup techniques based on 10 shoreline types and four categories of oil type:
  • Very light oil (e.g., gasoline)
  • Light oil (e.g., diesel)
  • Medium oil (e.g., #4 or medium crude)
  • Heavy oil (e.g., bunker C)
Click on the shoreline type below to view a table of applicable countermeasures.

1. Vertical Rocky Shoreline, Seawalls, Piers

Countermeasure Very Light Light Medium Heavy
1) No Action A A
Ch Ch
2) Manual Removal A
A
A
C
3) Passive Collection (Sorbents) A
A
A
Ck
4) Debris Removal/Heavy Equipment A
5) Trenching (recovery wells) Ce
6) Sediment Removal C A
7) Cold Water Flooding (deluge) C
8.a) Cold Water Washing - Low Pressure (<50psi) Ab; f Ab; f
8.b) Cold Water Washing - High Pressure (<100psi) Ab; f Ab; f
9) Warm Water Washing (ambient to 90F) Cb; f; g Ab; f; g Ab; f; g
10) Hot Water Pressure Washing (>90F) Cb; f; g; j Ab; f; g; j
11) Slurry Sand Blasting Cj Cj
12) Vacuum Ab Ab Ab
13) Shore Removal/Replacement
14) Cutting Vegetation (depends upon time of year)
ALL METHODS BELOW REQUIRE RRT and/or STATE APPROVAL
15.a) Chemical Treatment - Oil Stabilization
15.b) Chemical Treatment - Protection of Beaches
15.c) Chemical Treatment - Cleaning of Beaches
16) Burning (depends upon time of year)
17) Nutrient Enhancement
18) Bacterial Addition
19) Sediment Reworking

2. Eroding Scarps, Sediment

Countermeasure Very Light Light Medium Heavy
1) No Action A A Ch Ch
2) Manual Removal A A A A
3) Passive Collection (Sorbents)
Ck
4) Debris Removal/Heavy Equipment
5) Trenching (recovery wells)
6) Sediment Removal C C
7) Cold Water Flooding (deluge)
8.a) Cold Water Washing - Low Pressure (<50psi) Ab; f Ab; f Ab; f
8.b) Cold Water Washing - High Pressure (<100psi) Cb; f
9) Warm Water Washing (ambient to 90F) Cb; f; g Cb; f; g Ab; f; g
10) Hot Water Pressure Washing (>90F)
11) Slurry Sand Blasting
12) Vacuum Ab
13) Shore Removal/Replacement
14) Cutting Vegetation (depends upon time of year)



ALL METHODS BELOW REQUIRE RRT and/or STATE APPROVAL
15.a) Chemical Treatment - Oil Stabilization



15.b) Chemical Treatment - Protection of Beaches



15.c) Chemical Treatment - Cleaning of Beaches



16) Burning (depends upon time of year)

C
C
17) Nutrient Enhancement



18) Bacterial Addition



19) Sediment Reworking

C
C

3. Shelving Bedrock Ledges

Countermeasure Very Light Light Medium Heavy
1) No Action A A Ch Ch
2) Manual Removal A A A C
3) Passive Collection (Sorbents) A A A Ak
4) Debris Removal/Heavy Equipment A A A
5) Trenching (recovery wells)
6) Sediment Removal
7) Cold Water Flooding (deluge)
8.a) Cold Water Washing - Low Pressure (<50psi) Ab; f Ab; f Ab; f
8.b) Cold Water Washing - High Pressure (<100psi) Ab; f Ab; f Ab; f
9) Warm Water Washing (ambient to 90F) Cb; f; g Ab; f; g Ab; f; g
10) Hot Water Pressure Washing (>90F) Cb; f; g Cb; f; g
11) Slurry Sand Blasting
12) Vacuum Ab; f Ab; f Ab; f
13) Shore Removal/Replacement
14) Cutting Vegetation (depends upon time of year)



ALL METHODS BELOW REQUIRE RRT and/or STATE APPROVAL
15.a) Chemical Treatment - Oil Stabilization



15.b) Chemical Treatment - Protection of Beaches



15.c) Chemical Treatment - Cleaning of Beaches



16) Burning (depends upon time of year)



17) Nutrient Enhancement



18) Bacterial Addition



19) Sediment Reworking



4. Sand Beaches

Countermeasure Very Light Light Medium Heavy
1) No Action A A
2) Manual Removal A C A A
3) Passive Collection (Sorbents) A A Ak
4) Debris Removal/Heavy Equipment A A A
5) Trenching (recovery wells) Ce Ce Ce
6) Sediment Removal A A
7) Cold Water Flooding (deluge) Cb Cb Cb
8.a) Cold Water Washing - Low Pressure (<50psi)
8.b) Cold Water Washing - High Pressure (<100psi)
9) Warm Water Washing (ambient to 90F)
10) Hot Water Pressure Washing (>90F)
11) Slurry Sand Blasting
12) Vacuum Cb Cb Cb
13) Shore Removal/Replacement C C A A
14) Cutting Vegetation (depends upon time of year)



ALL METHODS BELOW REQUIRE RRT and/or STATE APPROVAL
15.a) Chemical Treatment - Oil Stabilization
C
C

15.b) Chemical Treatment - Protection of Beaches
C
C
C
15.c) Chemical Treatment - Cleaning of Beaches
C
C

16) Burning (depends upon time of year)



17) Nutrient Enhancement
C
C
C
18) Bacterial Addition
C
C
C
19) Sediment Reworking C
C
C
C

5. Mixed Sand & Gravel Beaches

Countermeasure Very Light Light Medium Heavy
1) No Action A C
2) Manual Removal A C A A
3) Passive Collection (Sorbents) A A Ak
4) Debris Removal/Heavy Equipment A A A
5) Trenching (recovery wells) Ce Ce Ce
6) Sediment Removal A A
7) Cold Water Flooding (deluge) Cb Cb C
8.a) Cold Water Washing - Low Pressure (<50psi)
8.b) Cold Water Washing - High Pressure (<100psi)
9) Warm Water Washing (ambient to 90F)
10) Hot Water Pressure Washing (>90F)
11) Slurry Sand Blasting
12) Vacuum Cb Cb Cb
13) Shore Removal/Replacement C C A A
14) Cutting Vegetation (depends upon time of year)



ALL METHODS BELOW REQUIRE RRT and/or STATE APPROVAL
15.a) Chemical Treatment - Oil Stabilization
C
C

15.b) Chemical Treatment - Protection of Beaches
C
C
C
15.c) Chemical Treatment - Cleaning of Beaches
C
C

16) Burning (depends upon time of year)



17) Nutrient Enhancement
C
C
C
18) Bacterial Addition
C
C
C
19) Sediment Reworking C
C
C
C

6. Gravel Beaches

Countermeasure Very Light Light Medium Heavy
1) No Action A C
2) Manual Removal Aa C A A
3) Passive Collection (Sorbents) A A A Ak
4) Debris Removal/Heavy Equipment A A A
5) Trenching (recovery wells)
6) Sediment Removal
7) Cold Water Flooding (deluge) Ab Ab Ab C
8.a) Cold Water Washing - Low Pressure (<50psi) Cb; f Cb; f
8.b) Cold Water Washing - High Pressure (<100psi) Cb; f
9) Warm Water Washing (ambient to 90F)
10) Hot Water Pressure Washing (>90F)
11) Slurry Sand Blasting
12) Vacuum Ab Ab Ab Cb
13) Shore Removal/Replacement C A
14) Cutting Vegetation (depends upon time of year)



ALL METHODS BELOW REQUIRE RRT and/or STATE APPROVAL
15.a) Chemical Treatment - Oil Stabilization
C


15.b) Chemical Treatment - Protection of Beaches
C


15.c) Chemical Treatment - Cleaning of Beaches
C


16) Burning (depends upon time of year)



17) Nutrient Enhancement
C
C
C
18) Bacterial Addition
C
C
C
19) Sediment Reworking
C
C
C

7. Riprap

Countermeasure Very Light Light Medium Heavy
1) No Action A A Ch Ch
2) Manual Removal Aa C A A
3) Passive Collection (Sorbents) A A A Ak
4) Debris Removal/Heavy Equipment A A A
5) Trenching (recovery wells)
6) Sediment Removal
7) Cold Water Flooding (deluge) Ab Ab Ab C
8.a) Cold Water Washing - Low Pressure (<50psi) Ab; f Ab; f Ab; f Cb; f
8.b) Cold Water Washing - High Pressure (<100psi) Ab; f Ab; f
9) Warm Water Washing (ambient to 90F) Cb; f; g Cb; f; g
10) Hot Water Pressure Washing (>90F) Cg; j Cb; f; g; j
11) Slurry Sand Blasting C Cj
12) Vacuum Ab Ab Ab Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Passive collection and vacuum should be coordinated with flooding or washing methods.">Cb
13) Shore Removal/Replacement C
14) Cutting Vegetation (depends upon time of year)



ALL METHODS BELOW REQUIRE RRT and/or STATE APPROVAL
15.a) Chemical Treatment - Oil Stabilization



15.b) Chemical Treatment - Protection of Beaches



15.c) Chemical Treatment - Cleaning of Beaches



16) Burning (depends upon time of year)



17) Nutrient Enhancement
C
C
C
18) Bacterial Addition
C
C
C
19) Sediment Reworking

C
C

8. Sheltered Bedrock, Bluffs

Countermeasure Very Light Light Medium Heavy
1) No Action A A
2) Manual Removal A A A A
3) Passive Collection (Sorbents) A A A Ak
4) Debris Removal/Heavy Equipment
A A A
5) Trenching (recovery wells)
6) Sediment Removal
7) Cold Water Flooding (deluge)
8.a) Cold Water Washing - Low Pressure (<50psi) Ab; f Ab; f Ab; f
8.b) Cold Water Washing - High Pressure (<100psi) Ab; f Cb; f Cb; f
9) Warm Water Washing (ambient to 90F)
10) Hot Water Pressure Washing (>90F)
11) Slurry Sand Blasting
12) Vacuum Ab Ab Ab
13) Shore Removal/Replacement

14) Cutting Vegetation (depends upon time of year)
C
C C
ALL METHODS BELOW REQUIRE RRT and/or STATE APPROVAL
15.a) Chemical Treatment - Oil Stabilization

C

15.b) Chemical Treatment - Protection of Beaches



15.c) Chemical Treatment - Cleaning of Beaches



16) Burning (depends upon time of year)

C

17) Nutrient Enhancement



18) Bacterial Addition



19) Sediment Reworking



9. Sheltered Low-Lying Banks

Countermeasure Very Light Light Medium Heavy
1) No Action A A
2) Manual Removal A A A
3) Passive Collection (Sorbents) A A A Ak
4) Debris Removal/Heavy Equipment
5) Trenching (recovery wells)
6) Sediment Removal
7) Cold Water Flooding (deluge) Ab Ab Ab C
8.a) Cold Water Washing - Low Pressure (<50psi) Cb; f
8.b) Cold Water Washing - High Pressure (<100psi) Cb; f; g Cb; f; g Cb; f; g
9) Warm Water Washing (ambient to 90F)
10) Hot Water Pressure Washing (>90F)
11) Slurry Sand Blasting
12) Vacuum Ab Ab Ab Cb
13) Shore Removal/Replacement Cc
14) Cutting Vegetation (depends upon time of year) C C C
ALL METHODS BELOW REQUIRE RRT and/or STATE APPROVAL
15.a) Chemical Treatment - Oil Stabilization

C

15.b) Chemical Treatment - Protection of Beaches



15.c) Chemical Treatment - Cleaning of Beaches



16) Burning (depends upon time of year)

C
C
17) Nutrient Enhancement



18) Bacterial Addition



19) Sediment Reworking



10. Fringing & Extensive Wetlands

Countermeasure Very Light Light Medium Heavy
1) No Action A C Ch; i Ch; i
2) Manual Removal Cd Cd Cd
3) Passive Collection (Sorbents) A A A Ak
4) Debris Removal/Heavy Equipment A
5) Trenching (recovery wells)
6) Sediment Removal
7) Cold Water Flooding (deluge) Ab Ab Ab C
8.a) Cold Water Washing - Low Pressure (<50psi) Ab; f Cb; f Cb; f
8.b) Cold Water Washing - High Pressure (<100psi)
9) Warm Water Washing (ambient to 90F)
10) Hot Water Pressure Washing (>90F)
11) Slurry Sand Blasting
12) Vacuum Ab Ab Ab Cb
13) Shore Removal/Replacement
14) Cutting Vegetation (depends upon time of year)
C
C
C
ALL METHODS BELOW REQUIRE RRT and/or STATE APPROVAL
15.a) Chemical Treatment - Oil Stabilization

C

15.b) Chemical Treatment - Protection of Beaches



15.c) Chemical Treatment - Cleaning of Beaches



16) Burning (depends upon time of year) C
C
C
C
17) Nutrient Enhancement



18) Bacterial Addition



19) Sediment Reworking




The following guidance codes are used in those tables:
Guidance Codes
Unique shoreline cleanup guidance code combinations
A = Acceptable
C = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact
x = Not Advisable or Not Applicable
a = Manual removal of oiled debris or small persistent pockets.
b = Passive collection and vacuum should be coordinated with flooding or washing methods.
c = Shoreline removal/replacement with clay if substrate is saturate with oil.
d = Low intensity removal of mobile debris only - e.g. vegetation or driftwood.
e = Trenching only if heavy impact exists and no other viable collection method is available.
f = Proximity to water intakes should be considered when pressure washing shoreline.
g = Consider biological community and porosity of substrate when using pressure or elevated temperature.
h = No action only if residual sheening is present.
j = Hot water pressure wash or slurry sand blast for aesthetic reasons.
k = Passive collection only if viscosity is low enough to result in sorbent effectiveness.
A = Acceptable
Aa = Acceptable; Manual removal of oiled debris or small persistent pockets.
Ab = Acceptable; Passive collection and vacuum should be coordinated with flooding or washing methods.
Ab,f = Acceptable; Passive collection and vacuum should be coordinated with flooding or washing methods. Proximity to water intakes should be considered when pressure washing shoreline.
Ab,f,g = Acceptable; Passive collection and vacuum should be coordinated with flooding or washing methods. Proximity to water intakes should be considered when pressure washing shoreline. Consider biological community and porosity of substrate when using pressure or elevated temperature.
Ab,f,g,j = Acceptable; Passive collection and vacuum should be coordinated with flooding or washing methods. Proximity to water intakes should be considered when pressure washing shoreline. Consider biological community and porosity of substrate when using pressure or elevated temperature. Hot water pressure wash or slurry sand blast for aesthetic reasons.
Ak = Acceptable; Passive collection only if viscosity is low enough to result in sorbent effectiveness.
Cb = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Passive collection and vacuum should be coordinated with flooding or washing methods.
Cb,f = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Passive collection and vacuum should be coordinated with flooding or washing methods. Proximity to water intakes should be considered when pressure washing shoreline.
Cb,f,g = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Passive collection and vacuum should be coordinated with flooding or washing methods. Proximity to water intakes should be considered when pressure washing shoreline. Consider biological community and porosity of substrate when using pressure or elevated temperature.
Cb,f,g,j = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Passive collection and vacuum should be coordinated with flooding or washing methods. Proximity to water intakes should be considered when pressure washing shoreline. Consider biological community and porosity of substrate when using pressure or elevated temperature. Hot water pressure wash or slurry sand blast for aesthetic reasons.
Cc = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Shoreline removal/replacement with clay if substrate is saturated with oil.
Cd = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Low intensity removal of mobile debris only, e.g., vegetation or driftwood.
Ce = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Trenching only if heavy impact exists and no other viable collection method is available.
Cg,j = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Consider biological community and porosity of substrate when using pressure or elevated temperature. Hot water pressure wash or slurry sand blast for aesthetic reasons.
Ch = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. No action only if residual sheening is present.
Ch,i = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. No action only if residual sheening is present. No action only if the wetland fringes are impacted or access would result in unacceptable damage.
Cj = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Hot water pressure wash or slurry sand blast for aesthetic reasons.
Ck = Conditional - Use after other less intrusive methods or following particularly heavy impact. Passive collection only if viscosity is low enough to result in sorbent effectiveness.


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